MAGAnomics – ISM Manufacturing Survey Results Easily Exceed Expectations…

The Institute for Supply Management (ISM) released their manufacturing review today highlighting continued expansion of the underlying economy.  The results today from within the overall manufacturing industry emphasize the 27th consecutive month of growth…. and a future-view that seems to be predicting much more.  Much more!

ISM Release […] Manufacturing expanded in November, as the PMI® registered 59.3 percent, an increase of 1.6 percentage points from the October reading of 57.7 percent. “This indicates growth in manufacturing for the 27th consecutive month, led by strong new orders, production output and continued slowing supplier delivery performance,” says Fiore. A reading above 50 percent indicates that the manufacturing economy is generally expanding; below 50 percent indicates that it is generally contracting. (more)

Okay CTH, so take the business wonk-speak out of this – what does it mean?

Here’s the summary: Manufacturers are increasing new orders (making more stuff). Production outputs and employment within the manufacturing sector are still growing. Suppliers are still having a tough time filling material orders, but they are finding new and innovative ways to speed up shipments of raw material. However, despite the speed (increased efficiency in delivering the raw material), the backlog of requests is still growing (new orders exceed supply chain). Customer inventories are too low (hence the backlog for new stuff). Inflationary pressure still exists, but the rate of price growth is slowing (increased supplier efficiency). Manufacturing exports and imports are growing. The economy is expanding.

The story within the manufacturing sector is the story within the middle-class U.S. economy.  This is MAGAnomics at work.

The bad news is, if you can call it bad news, that our America-First economy is so strong we are struggling to produce, secure and ship enough stuff to fuel the underlying demand.  Every nation wishes they had this problem.

The manufacturing sector is trying to find ways to produce more stuff, as the infrastructure for producing more stuff is not yet ready.  When the new production capacity (prior investment) comes on-line, it will be easier to make more stuff.

“Efficiency Drivers” – You are seeing this in a few different ways.  [Transport] Think about tractor-trailers (18 wheel big rigs) on the roads; you are seeing more dual-trailers being hauled.  This is a way to ship more stuff, quicker.  Additionally, Trump’s cabinet is pushing the economic gas pedal with DOT Secretary Elaine Chao allowing younger (18-year-old) apprentice truck haulers; to help fill the insatiable need for truck drivers etc.

The manufacturing expansion shows up in the latest Bureau of Labor Statistics production efficiency third quarter report known as “Productivity”.

BEA – Q3 […] Nonfarm business sector labor productivity increased 2.2 percent during the third quarter of 2018, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today, as output increased 4.1 percent and hours worked increased 1.8 percent. (more)

Economic analysis can get weedy…. so a simple way to look at productivity is to think about baking bread in your kitchen.

If you were going to bake 4 loaves of bread it might take you 2 hrs start to finish. However, if you were going to bake 8 loaves of bread it would not take you twice as long because most of the tasks can be accomplished with simple increases in batch size, and only minor increases in labor time.  Your productivity, measured in the last four loaves, is higher.

Economic Productivity is measured much the same way, within what’s called a production probability equation.  Additionally, if two hours of your time are worth $40, each of four loaves of bread costs $10; but if you make 8 loaves in the same amount of time the labor cost is only $5/per loaf.

From 2007 through 2017 the average rate of productivity increase was 1.3%.  However, in the third quarter of 2018 productivity was strong at 2.2% [Q2 productivity 2.9%].  That means total business output increased significantly as more product was demanded from within the business operation.  Throughout the economy people just wanted more stuff.

Improved gains in efficiency/productivity (more bread needed) supports faster economic growth without generating higher inflation; no need to raise prices because your cost to make each loaf of bread decreases the more you make.  Higher sales and lower per unit cost means more profit for the bread-maker at the same price.  No need to raise prices.  Without inflation, there should be no motive for the Fed to raise interest-rates.

Increases in productivity generally means the economy is generating more stuff.  The more stuff generated the higher the value of all economic activity; this increases GDP growth.

When we see higher productivity in direct alignment with GDP increases, the increased production indicates sustainable GDP growth.

We made 4.1 percent more stuff, and only worked 1.8 percent longer. The net is a 2.2 percent productivity increase:

Manufacturing sector labor productivity increased 0.5 percent in the third quarter of 2018, as output increased 3.4 percent and hours worked increased 2.9 percent. Productivity increased 1.5 percent in the durable manufacturing sector, as output rose 4.9 percent and hours worked increased 3.4 percent. Over the last four quarters, total manufacturing sector productivity increased 1.3 percent, as output increased 3.4 percent and hours worked increased 2.1 percent. Unit labor costs in manufacturing increased 0.9 percent in the third quarter of 2018 and increased 0.9 percent from the same quarter a year ago. (link)

So what do we have?  Low inflation; expanding employment opportunity; record low unemployment; and rising wages – meaning more money in your pocket.

These measures all have a cumulative impact on paycheck-to-paycheck Americans. Prices for durable goods are stable, and wage growth is exceeding inflation. That means more disposable income in the middle-class…. which, when combined with the increased pay from lower middle-class tax rates, is exactly the intended outcome of MAGAnomics.

This creates a situation where the U.S. consumer can fuel the the U.S. economy while President Trump, Secretary Ross, Secretary Mnuchin and Ambassador Robert Lighthizer utilize the leverage within tariffs, to negotiate better America-First trade deals.

That is economic nationalism.

That my friends is MAGAnomics.

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This entry was posted in Auto Sector, Big Government, Donald Trump, Economy, Education, media bias, NAFTA, President Trump, Professional Idiots, propaganda, Trade Deal, Transportation, Uncategorized, US dept of agriculture, US Treasury, USA, USMCA. Bookmark the permalink.

67 Responses to MAGAnomics – ISM Manufacturing Survey Results Easily Exceed Expectations…

  1. weirdflunky says:

    A huge driver of the corporate demand for big ticket items is the tax brake/change was the ability to write off the depreciation in one year. My company went years without our normal big ticket purchases and now we have heavy equipment/trucks on a year long back order.

    This is a huge deal that is absolutely “trickling down” through the entire economy.

    Liked by 13 people

    • zooamerica says:

      Being able to purchase an expensive piece of equipment and immediately being able to deduct 100% of that expense is a huge reason why the US economy is growing. People have incentive to invest – and grow their business, faster. And that’s what we need – faster productivity. Can’t have faster productivity without investment in expansion. “Depreciation” should be completely done away with simply because it’s too slow in a fast economy.

      Liked by 11 people

      • donnyvee says:

        For Weird and Zoo, I couldn’t agree more. I work in mortgage finance, specializing in business owners. I have often seen depreciation schedules at the back of some returns that were a dozen or more pages. I’ve always thought that was ridiculous, and again, I agree that being able to write things off right a way is a big driver in our new economic prosperity.

        Liked by 4 people

      • litlbit2 says:

        Very much agree. Depreciation only works if future growth exceeds or equals write-off. A terrible way to run a railroad since nothing goes up, up.

        100% deduction is a enormous driver for everyone, owner, manufacturers, workers, government city or state revenues. More workers, more tax income etc.

        One huge problem is the mental ability of elected officials become intoxicatingly stupid on OPM resulting in the downfall over time of their states, cities, counties. Example all dnc governed areas expanding into many old gop strongholds. Not normal folks.

        Liked by 3 people

  2. Dems and Rinos can’t attack the economy, hence the personal PDJT attacks.

    Liked by 8 people

  3. i'm just sayin'.. says:

    Impeach!!!! /s

    Liked by 4 people

    • woohoowee says:

      LOL! Sundance posted a thread yesterday showcasing how stupid the Dims sound about our booming PT45 economy. The video was a hoot!

      Liked by 7 people

      • rayvandune says:

        Bill Maher says the only way to keep Trump from a second term is to create a recession! Show us how, Bill! Keep making “jokes” like that, and you will be able to demonstrate your own very personal recession, as your ratings crater! Lead on!

        Liked by 6 people

  4. namberak says:

    “The bad news is, if you can call it bad news, that our America-First economy is so strong we are struggling to produce, secure and ship enough stuff to fuel the underlying demand.” And there are downstream effects. I have a family member who’s been quite a successful sales guy at CarMax and he tells me that he almost cannot keep up with the pace of people buying new vehicles and it’s been that way more than a year. A good problem for him to have!

    Liked by 7 people

  5. WSB says:

    Wilburine!!!!!!!!!!!!

    Liked by 7 people

  6. Motzilla says:

    Pledges & Promises made; Pledges & Promises being kept!

    Liked by 13 people

  7. Disgusted says:

    Sundance, This simplification of the explanation truly helped. Would you please try to do the same thing to simplify reason or reasons why we are not watching our promised wall being built? And why illegal immigrants are somehow being here and there able to sneak across borders.

    Like

    • sturmudgeon says:

      Dear ‘Disgusted’: (this is NOT Sundance)… The present Economic ‘boom/success’, as I see it, is because of Trump’s de-regs and ‘persuading’ private companies that his policies are good for them and America. The reason the Wall is not proceeding (other than slowly), is because THAT project is in the hands of the Washington politicians, who are doing all in their power to stymie that project. That is the very obvious difference. President Trump has been blocked by these “not interested at all in the American citizens” pols. Does that help answer your frustration??

      Liked by 4 people

      • litlbit2 says:

        Simply, illegals vote DNC, help ballot harvesting, provide cheap labor for DNC/GOPe donations to elected reps, expands the victims classes, promotes taxpayer funded freebies to the poor immigrant, demoralizing the worker etc.

        Those above, you put in the names, can not let the wall become a fulfilled promise or a completed construction project. Can not let MAGA happen and to date have stalled the wall.

        Call your representative 24/7 until they actual hear you.

        Liked by 2 people

        • Michael K says:

          Remember that all immigrants, not just illegals, are 63% likely to be on welfare. The longer they are here, the higher the probability.

          Liked by 1 person

          • litlbit2 says:

            Has there ever been a SC test of the constitutionality of taxpayer funds used as income for non citizens or illegals to also be tax free in lieu of a job? If yes, why is that not discrimination against American citizens or working American citizens?

            Like

    • snarkybeach says:

      the scum congress critters wrote into the last appropriations bill that the President could only repair existing walls, not build new ones and gave him a party amount compared to what he asked for.

      Liked by 1 person

  8. TheLastDemocrat says:

    If it costs me $5 per loaf, I will still charge as much as I can.

    If my local patrons all have incomes rising, I can inch up prices, and keep selling the same amount; they don’t balk since they don’t have to watch each nickel as closely.

    I know there are people here who don’t believe that demand pull inflation happens. I am not going to argue easily observable realities of nature.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Texian says:

      Your democrat is showing..

      Your model will make short term gain but you won’t have repeat customers. A competitor will rise up, keep selling them at five bucks, earn brand loyalty.. And still be in business..

      Liked by 12 people

      • BINGO, fellow Texian!

        Treepers have taken note that the number of Entrepreneurs is beginning to surge
        … Big League!

        Liked by 4 people

      • Texian says:

        It’s been a year now in competitor’s bread factory.. He’s hired smart Americans and pay them a fair wage (not illegals and pay them slave wages like democrats do), and one of his workers came up with an idea to increase productivity.. Competitor promoted him and made the changes.. Competitor is now producing even more loaves per hour and increased his profit margin by another dollar.. Competitor is still in business selling at $5 per loaf and making even more money..

        What ever happened to that bread company that was selling for $7 per loaf..? I dunno.. But I heard Bob just got promoted at Competitor Bread and he just bought a new bass boat..

        Liked by 6 people

    • litlbit2 says:

      IMO very true and once your business can raise prices or sell more loafs, in most cases.
      You expand, hiring more, selling more, expanding tax collections the pie become bigger for all to enjoy.

      MAGA = President Trump = Deplorables = American Dream = America’s future + generations built on faith as promised.

      Like

    • cantcforest says:

      So margins increase, thereby inviting competition.
      Don’t be so jealous that “they” positioned themselves to grow their margins.

      Liked by 2 people

    • GB Bari says:

      Your strategy may work in some limited-competition markets, but not in bread. It all depends on the historical elasticity of demand in whichever market you are engaged.

      Like

  9. Dutchman says:

    So, 2 questions;
    Firstly does and will this clear demonstration, once and for all prove ‘trickle down’ works, and isn’t ‘voodoo economics’, at all?

    Secondly, did all the politicians and their advisors over the years, lead us down the economic sewer due to ignorance, or avarice?

    Particularly when you look at the trade deals, finding it real hard to believe these geniuses were blind to the consequences of their actions; it was INTENTIONAL.

    So, put aside charging soft coupers with treason and sedition, (for the moment) we REALLY ought to be screaming for the heads, of ALL the people responsible for shaping economic policy, for the last 20-30 years, at least.

    Hang them from the nearest lampost, FIRST, then we can move on to their quislings, second.

    Gonna need a LOT of rope,….

    Liked by 1 person

  10. fleporeblog says:

    What excited me the most about the report SD shared was the following:

    Lead-time extensions continue, while steel and aluminum prices are declining.

    Hello 👋! Everything they have ever told us is a damn lie. Americans will see the Tax Reform Bill in all its glory in about two months when they prepare their taxes. 90% of Americans are going to see the additional money come back to them because of the new tax law. Those Americans are going to be estatic and angry 😡 at the same time. They will once again realize they were lied 🤥 to by the Democrats and MSM.

    The favor ability of the Tax Reform Bill will skyrocket. At the same time, the MORONIC Democrats are going to try and pass a Tax Bill that does away with the SALT maximum. It hurt predominantly Blue States. It truly is a tax break for the rich. Middle class Americans will get absolutely nothing from it. The Democrats are going to finally put themselves on record for being the Party of the rich while our President will continue to show he is for the working class.

    Liked by 13 people

    • fleporeblog says:

      From the article linked above:

      They criticized President Trump’s tax cut bill as a giveaway to the rich, but now congressional Democrats are eyeing their own $620 billion tax break that would go heavily to wealthier Americans.

      As they prepare to take control of the House, one high priority for Democrats from northeastern states is to look at rolling back the $10,000 limit on state and local tax deductions included in the Republicans’ 2017 overhaul of the federal tax system.

      But analysts say repealing the state and local tax limit is worth just dollars to the average middle-class taxpayer. For the wealthy, though, the proposal could lower tax bills by tens of thousands of dollars.

      Liked by 2 people

      • dd_sc says:

        Unfortunately, a lot of RINOs from high tax states like NY will be on board with this plan.

        Liked by 1 person

      • Wait for POTUS to pin the tail on every proponenet of this UniParty SCAM:
        FLEECEonomics.

        Liked by 6 people

      • yucki says:

        Sounds like something Occasional-Cortex could sink her unusually large teeth into~

        Liked by 2 people

      • romy911 says:

        Was SALT part of making the tax cuts revenue neutral? And the tax cuts had to be revenue neutral because no Democrats voted for the Tax Plan / no 60 votes.
        In my state, SALT may hurt the the middle class and the wealthy. Combined property taxes & state taxes are well above the $10,000 limit, even for the middle class. Hopefully, the lower tax brackets and tax credits will make up some of the difference.
        I’m not a proponent of anyone paying higher taxes, including the wealthy. That’s the Democrats, ie., let’s punish the wealthy.

        Liked by 1 person

        • GB Bari says:

          You obviously missed PDJT’s brilliance in the SALT portion of the 2017 Tax Act.

          What you are referring to as “SALT” (the $10,000 limit on state and local tax deductions per the Dec 2017 Tax Act) removed the ability for high tax states to be able to allow their residents to deduct those high state taxes on their federal 1040’s.

          So in effect, the high tax states simply passed their high tax burden onto the federal taxpayers because of the reduced taxes the wealthier residents paid on their 1040’s.

          SALT is not “taxing the rich.” It’s making the rich who live in states with high state tax structures deal with those high taxes of their own states (almost all of the affected high-tax states are Blue DemocRAT-controlled states), instead of passing that cost along to the taxpayers across the rest of the nation.

          The cure is for the “rich” in those high tax states to persuade their state legislatures to reduce state taxes since only a maximum of $10K are now deductible on their federal returns.

          Liked by 1 person

    • Sayit2016 says:

      Just last year alone my neighbors federal taxes went from 5400 to 1200 he was stoked… And I said aren’t you glad you voted for Trump?

      Liked by 3 people

  11. zooamerica says:

    Can’t Main Street and Wall Street “Coexist?”

    What’s good for the goose is good for the gander, right? I hope and pray that all of the globalist economists (and some politicians) out there wake up and realize that international globalism is nothing but modern day communism in disguise. Globalism puts way too much power in centralized government. Centralized control over the means and production of the World economy is the end game for the Communist International.

    After the Cold Ward ended, communism did not die. Communism re-branded itself as Globalism; the antithesis of Capitalism. Capitalism requires free and independent markets. Globalism is like a single cancer cell seeking to take over the entire world body economy….and kill it.

    Liked by 5 people

    • yucki says:

      That kind of system leaves fewer and fewer at the top, in control.
      Middling globalists (and some politicians) tend to tumble quickly. Then they’re no better off than the lumpen.

      Like

  12. Sundance has produced an awesomely-clear explanation of our MAGAnomics Economy at work!

    Please, Sundance, forward this to the Fed, as they have NO CLUE regarding what’s been happening, how and where it’s going in even the next quarter … as they make one ECONOMY-CRUSHING decision (Quarterly Rate Hikes) after another (Monthly withdrawals of Quantitative Easing to reduce the Money Supply).

    Liked by 3 people

  13. Franklin says:

    The Democrats are pushing for a $15 minimum wage which will cause problems in the economy.

    Liked by 2 people

  14. dd_sc says:

    Slightly off topic, but it’s in Ross’ tweet:

    …opportunity for the U.S. to apply on a broad scale the best practices from the Swiss apprenticeship system.

    First I’ve seen this. Any idea what these “best practices” are that Team Trump is looking to apply?

    Liked by 1 person

    • Sadly, the tweet had no links to the Swiss program or best practices.

      Like

      • Franklin says:

        “Recently the U.S. has shown increasing interest in learning about the Swiss apprenticeship model. American entrepreneurs and officials have become more familiar with our system and have identified the great potential for the labor market in the idea of combining on-the-job training with classroom instruction.”

        https://www.swissnexboston.org/the-swiss-apprenticeship-model-in-the-u-s/

        Liked by 6 people

        • GB Bari says:

          The brochure link in the webpage is dead. But the video still works. Interesting that the video was published on YouTube in early 2016, but you didn’t hear much about it from the Obozo Administration (former Labor Secy Perez is even featured briefly in the video making a pro-apprentice program statement).

          Looks like an old idea that’s been brushed off and shined up to look new again. Also appears to be in-concert with the jobs training program that Ivanka Trump has been championing.

          Like

        • Stillwater says:

          Thanks for the link.

          From the video (@1:50) in your link, the Swiss apprenticeship model starts kids thinking about their careers and applying for apprenticeships at the early age of 14. If I understand the video, the apprenticeships start at 16 years of age(or is it upon graduation? Not sure.) and last 3-4 years while they take classes at a local school.

          It seems to me that this approach helps counter the arrested development we see with those who just jump straight to college/university without any real world experience.

          Like

    • railer says:

      I don’t know, but whatever we can do to improve the pipeline of talent into the skilled trades, we need to do it. Kids can walk into that work and immediately develop earning power. We’ve been pushing these useless university degrees for too long. Manufacturing requires talent, not useless degrees. MAGA engages that thinking, one of the great parts of it imo.

      In my career, I’ve found skilled pipefitters, machinery repair, electrical and instrumentation and control, ironworkers… these guys are what you need to make a program sing. Craftsmanship and professionalism in the trades, more of an Old World ethic, which is probably why we’re looking to the Swiss for help. Our labor unions and government have forgotten how to develop that sort of talent. We need these guys. Trump has actually BUILT stuff in his career, so not surprising he’d understand all this. He’s had to deal with these needs firsthand. They are an absolute requirement.

      Liked by 5 people

    • piper567 says:

      dd, I am willing to bet that a number of models were thoroughly examined, and this was most aplicable to the situation of our Country.
      The Swiss are traditionally pretty good at approaching complex problems and their mechanics.
      But the chosen plan has to be appropriate for us.
      This is where trusting the Wilbur is a nice luxury to have.

      Liked by 1 person

  15. Bigbadmike says:

    This boom has always reminded me of the 80’s when price was not the dominant reason to buy. Delivery is equally as important. I don’t know how our company will keep our delivery promises, but we will do our best to. Today we had 3 different customers stop in unannouced, at the very same time to place orders. We are a manufacturer, not Wal-Mart. But we sure felt.like it.

    Liked by 3 people

  16. railer says:

    Trump had advance warning on this report. I have little doubt it was a consideration in his decision to defer trade action on China. We’re expanding manufacturing rapidly, and it might be a wise strategic decision to defer action as he has. The Speed of Trump might be too high velocity for the business cycle. These numbers are looking good. I’d let it ride as he has. Let’s see come April what it looks like.

    Liked by 3 people

    • GB Bari says:

      I believe that early on this year that PDJT as well as several of the Presidents Economic team were admitting in some brief interviews that the rapidly rising economic results were rising far more rapidly than they had anticipated. Accordingly, the supply of skilled labor has lagged the boom in demand for production.

      That’s not surprising since most companies will not risk the expense of hiring and training additional labor until they are fairly certain of a rise in demand for their products.

      So now they are fully aware of the rising demand – and they don’t want to be left out of participating in the boom, so they need more rapid ways to expand their skilled workforces. Local community colleges and vocational / tech train institutions can help, but businesses who have more specialized technologies will benefit from implementing an apprenticeship program if they need to field more workers in the short term.

      Like

  17. One of the best pieces of economic news is the 2.2% growth in productivity! Productivity gains feed wage growth that is not inflationary.
    BIG DEAL and major MAGA!

    Liked by 1 person

  18. Sayit2016 says:

    Thanks for the cliff notes… I was Deep In The Weeds on “reading above 50 percent indicates that the manufacturing economy is generally expanding; below 50 percent indicates that it is generally contracting. (more)”

    I was like huh… the bread loaf example was perfect it was an easily understood visual.

    About now Obama is beating himself in the head with Malia’s wand from her childhood, I don’t have the inclination to stop him anytime soon…

    Like

  19. Sayit2016 says:

    For those of you that live in Southern California, specifically San Diego near Camp Pendleton you know that there are two huge rest stops on either side of the 5. You see them going either North or South.

    I would see some transport trucks going north to San Clemente and then coming back, however this past year they are jammed with trucks and trucks along the shoulder for probably the first quarter mile from the rest stops.

    .

    Like

  20. millwright says:

    Any suppositions on how the Alaskan quake will affect the energy market ?

    Like

    • TarsTarkas says:

      The Alaska pipeline was briefly shut down but is up and running again. It supplies mostly the West Coast so people west of the Sierras might see a brief hiccup in fuel prices, but I doubt any more than that.

      Like

  21. Sundance and Treepers,

    “Without inflation, there should be no motive for the Fed to raise interest-rates.”

    I would suggest that the primary driver for this FED rate cycle is an attempt to mitigate the coming pension crisis (chronic underfunding and low rates) and any messaging directing eyeballs to the economy is misdirection.

    Like

  22. jeans2nd says:

    The manufacturing boom is really driving the entire economy. Those laid-off at Lordstown will need to relocate, but the jobs are there and available and screaming for guys like our Lordstown guys.

    The tech ed sector is also booming. Wicked Son received his 4th – fourth! – job offer yesterday, this one for Deputy CIO (woot woot!!) and a 25K increase over their previous rejected offer. What a dilemma//s.

    Thank you for continuing to showcase our good economic news.
    smh We really did good electing this guy, huh? The entire world is changing. Thank you for being the first to see the possibilities, and then actually acting on it.

    Like

  23. Pyrthroes says:

    Reflecting low-inflation productivity gains on high employment, record tax receipts, Main Street’s “real economy” leads Wall Street globalists’ derivative play-pen bobbing like a bumboat towed by a supertanker. But over the last thirty years or so, trade imbalances and public-sector debt in form of deca-trillion dollar deficits and unfunded pension liabilities have reached proportions that leave such as Alan Greenspan in vituperative denial.

    Alas, and to be blunt: Through c. AD 2070, a mere two generations, wastrel DC Administrations’ constant-dollar leverage totals an impossible $120 trillion. (Nor is the U.S. alone.) As demographics fall 50% or more below replacement rates while a 70+ year Grand Solar Minimum similar to that of 1645 – 1715 blights crops and reduces growing seasons –recall the scarifying famine of 1693 – ’96, which reduced Northern European populations by two-thirds– this Millennial generation born 1990 – 2012, reaching its peak in 2048, will witness internecine conflicts not seen since the catastrophic 14th Century “when God slept”.

    Given the pending robotics/AI SIngularity projected c. AD 2030, when hyperlinked, spontaneously self-emergent super-organisms (“Symbionts”) become sentient (“self-aware”), plus planetary-scale skyhooks lofting bulk cargoes and space-bound emigrants en masse to giant intra-solar refugia removed from Snowball Earth, later 21st Century venues will be inconceivably at odds with anything foreseeable. Just as 1900 was wholly unimaginable to 1800, and 2000 made nonsense of 1900 verities (see Jules Verne, H.G. Wells), so 2100 will have made not one but several quantum leaps.

    Just as as things get interesting, we kick the bucket.

    Like

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